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Standard epoxy molding compounds (often called EMC or duroplast) typically have a glass transition temperature (Tg) between 105°C and 165°C. For many if not most applications, this Tg is sufficient. However, as semiconductor chips evolve from silicon (Si) to silicon carbide (SiC) and operating environments become hotter as automotive applications become hotter, the need for higher glass transition temperatures also increases.
There is no black and white definition for what is considered a high glass transition temperature for epoxy molding compounds, but we will consider epoxy molding compounds with a Tg above 170°C to be High Tg epoxies, and those with a glass transition temperature above 200°C to be ultra-high Tg.
Please continue to our Learn More section to learn more about what gives an epoxy molding compound its high glass transition temperature, what can be done to increase the Tg of epoxy molding compounds higher (and even above 200°C) and how to best select a high or very high Tg epoxy molding compound.
Base epoxies probably have a current maximum Tg of around 255°C. When combined with other resins, hardeners and polymers, we have seen thermosetting polymers such as our Linqsol QSI 900HT, with a Tg as high as 454°C, though this material is not designed for semiconductor encapsulation.
Absolutely. An epoxy's glass transition temperature is not the same as its maximum operating temperature. Some materials, such as silicones have glass transition temperatures that rare low, or even negative and yet can have maximum operating temperatures higher than epoxies.
As explained in the article on how epoxy mold compounds cure, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of an epoxy molding compound is the temperature above which epoxy properties, specifically the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the dynamic modulus (E), change.
As you can see in Figure 1, the glass transition temperature, though often presented on technical datassheets as a single value is actually more accurately defined as a range. On the left side of the range, the epoxy mold compounds exhibit a hard or glassy behavior, characterized by a high modulus, high hardness and high stiffness. On the right side of the glass transition temperature the epoxy mold compound has a lower modulus, lower hardness and lower stiffness.
Similarly, the lower line represents the dimension or volume of the EMC. On the left of the glass transition region, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), measured in parts per million per degree Celcius (or ppm/°C) is linear and its rate ofd expansion increases more slowly. On the right side of the Tg region, the CTE increases much more quickly, typically 3 to 4 times as much in the case of epoxy molding compounds.
Read the article on how to measure the Tg of epoxy mold compounds
CAPLINQ offers a range of high glass transition temperature epoxy molding compounds. Follow the link to compare some of our highest Tg EMCs.
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